Immediately after the explosion, workers from BP and Transocean (the rig operators), and many government agencies tried to control the spread of the oil to beaches and other coastal ecosystems using floating booms to contain surface oil and chemical oil dispersants to break it down underwater. In testimony before a committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, Dr. Sylvia Earle, National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence and former chief scientist of NOAA, offered specific suggestions for addressing the catastrophic oil spill in the Gulf and delivered an impassioned call for greater investment in ocean research—including more expeditions to explore the Gulf’s deep waters, establishing permanent monitoring stations and protocols, and encouraging tri-national collaboration among scientists and institutions around the Gulf. Since then, dolphin deaths have declined, but dolphins in hard-hit Barataria Bay continue to have issues giving birth to healthy babies. -- Brown pelicans congregate on containment boom that surrounds Queen Bess Island, a few miles north of Grand Isle, La. A recent study discovered dispersants had an unintended benefit during the initial oil cleanup. Because oil normally has a lower density than water, it floats on the surface of the ocean. On April 19, 2011, NOAA announced that commercial and recreational fishing could resume in all of the federal waters that were affected by the spill. Dispersed oil droplets have a greater surface area to volume ratio than floating oil. Though the dispersants themselves are not toxic, environmental problems can occur when they are used in sheltered or shallow locations. Then they can use different tools to remove the collected oil. In this video interview with the Smithsonian Ocean Portal, he reflects on the Panama study and its implications for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and reminds listeners that the greatest threats to the ocean—overfishing, climate change, and other types of pollution—combined actually exceed the devastation that unfolded in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10808-009-0062-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10808-009-0062-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in At the outset, the twenty-person GoMRI Research Board adopted five main research themes to focus on: physical movement of the oil and dispersant, degradation of the oil and its interaction with the ecosystem, environmental effects of the oil and dispersant, development of technology for improved response and remediation, and the effects of oil and dispersant on human health. Privacy Policy | Sea water contains a wide range of micro-organisms that use hydrocarbons as a source of energy and can partially or completely degrade oil to water soluble compounds and eventually to carbon dioxide and water. Clear Seas » Blog » How does Oil Behave in Water? Monitoring of sea turtles both during and after the spill was difficult, though an understanding of general sea turtle behavior allowed scientists to estimate that up to 167,600 turtles died because of the spill. When the oil washed up on shore it came in the form of tarballs, slicks, and what responders call “mousse”—a foam-like combination of water, oil, and air. More about the Gulf oil spill can be found in our Gulf oil spill featured story. In addition, if the oil catches fire or is voluntarily burnt (in-situ burning) after it has been spilled, the residues that sometimes form can be sufficiently dense to sink. Their location gets tracked for weeks or months at a time and provide an unprecedented amount of location-based data for modeling. Seabirds were initially harmed by crude surface oil—even a small bit of oil on their feathers impeded their ability to fly, swim and find food by diving. Part of Springer Nature. Oil, dispersant, microbes, and mucus clumped together to form increased amounts of marine snow, dense particles which fall down to the seafloor from above. Dispersion encourages other natural processes to help break down the oil. It seems like a simple method, but it only works when the oil is in one place — and under the right conditions. Importance of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, Proc. Oil spill, leakage of petroleum onto the surface of a large body of water. This isn't because of anything inherently dangerous in the mixture of the two; the rotifers are more able to ingest oil once it's made accessible by the dispersant. The speed at which an oil spill is dispersed depends on the type of oil spilled, with non-persistent oils dispersing more rapidly than persistent oils. The geography as well as the unique physical attributes and water dynamics of the St. Lawrence challenge the commercial ships transiting through this maritime route in more than one way. Some hovered suspended in the midwater after rising from the wellhead like a chimney and forming several layers of oil, dispersant and seawater mixtures drifting down current; during the spill a 22-mile long oil plume was reported. This had a ripple effect in the community as smaller animals ate the bacteria. At low temperature, an oil will tend to be more viscous than at higher temperature as viscosity is inversely proportional to temperature. Like other autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), the robotic sub was programmed at the surface to navigate through the water on its own, collecting information on deep oil plumes from the Deepwater Horizon spill as it traveled. In the Gulf of Mexico hundreds of species of microbes such as bacteria, archaea, and fungi degrade oil. The oil slick formed may remain cohesive, or may break up in the case of rough seas. "In lab experiments, they can work very well. In many ship-source oil spills the type of oil spilled and the weather and ocean conditions are the most influential factors in determining how oil will behave in the marine environment. This is known as biodegradation. Hopefully these two victims remain isolated cases. In contrast, little evaporation will occur from a spilled heavy fuel oil. GRAND ISLE, La. The spread of an oil slick in the sea is considered. But overall, scientists have concluded that the amount of combined oil and dispersant determines if it is toxic or not, and the concentrations during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were below those levels that would be more toxic to marine species than the oil alone. Scientists are unsure why this happened but believe the hot oil influenced ocean currents, which then trapped the oil deep underwater. The GoMRI Research Board makes funding and research decisions, and as of 2020 over $425 million has been distributed to research institutions, many of which are located in Gulf states. Oil seepsoccur naturally in the marine environment, so microorganisms in the ocean have evolved to be able to consume, or eat, oil. But dispersants can also enter the food chain and potentially harm wildlife.

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