[16], An important application of the knowledge that atmospheric pressure varies directly with altitude was in determining the height of hills and mountains thanks to the availability of reliable pressure measurement devices. The inner layer is the last layer of Earth composed solidly of NiFe (Ni for nickel and Fe for ferum which is iron), this was discovered in1936 by seismologist, Traveling through to the centre of the earth. Of the mentioned layers, the lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth, that is, of 100 kilometers in thickness, and it exhibits the pressure in the range of 75 GPa to 110 GPa, that is, up to 109 GPa. atmosphere to pascal We assume you are converting between atmosphere [standard] and gigapascal. It is mostly fluid, made majority out of iron and nickel. ( If you have noticed an error in the text or calculations, or you need another converter, which you did not find here, please let us know! Atmospheric pressure is thus proportional to the weight per unit area of the atmospheric mass above that location. The lowest measurable sea-level pressure is found at the centers of tropical cyclones and tornadoes, with a record low of 870 mbar (87 kPa; 26 inHg). p The asthenosphere is the layer of Earth situated at an average depth of about 62 mi (about 100 km) beneath Earth's surface. ⁡ The definition of a pascal is as follows: The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure.It is equivalent to one newton per square metre. [5] However, in Canada's public weather reports, sea level pressure is instead reported in kilopascals.[6]. 1 pascal is equal to 9.8692316931427E-6 atmosphere, or 1.0E-9 GPa. h Check all that apply. atmosphere to inch water ⋅ Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! International Civil Aviation Organization. ≈ Outer core inner core lithosphere oceanic crust asthenosphere ⋅ Pressure (GPa) Pressure (GPa) 1,700 K 1,800 K 1,900 K 2,000 K 1,673 K 1,848 K 1,798 K 1,750 K 1,700 K 1,893 K 1,973 K 1,931 K 1,889 K 1,847 K 1,900 K 2,000 K This study Ref. %%EOF [14] Because of this, the boiling point of water is lower at lower pressure and higher at higher pressure. (inches water gauge). symbols, abbreviations, or full names for units of length, Mantle consists of different sections: upper mantle from the base of the crust to 470km deep consists of olivine. The current consensus is that the oceanic lithosphere thickens with age by accreting asthenosphere material from below, and reaches its full thickness (L) of ~ 90 km at the age (t) of ~ 70 Ma. Similar metric units with a wide variety of names and notation based on millimetres, centimetres or metres are now less commonly used. 14 Ref. Check all that apply. We work hard to ensure that the results presented by TranslatorsCafe.com converters and calculators are correct. 0 For numerical reasons, atmospheric models such as general circulation models (GCMs) usually predict the nondimensional logarithm of surface pressure. where the constant parameters are as described below: Atmospheric pressure varies widely on Earth, and these changes are important in studying weather and climate. © 2018 The Authors. 10^”, that is “times ten raised to the power of”. [10] The discrimination is due to the problematic assumptions (assuming a standard lapse rate) associated with reduction of sea level from high elevations. The petrological control on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath ocean basins. For surface pressure in physical chemistry, see. Asthenosphere. %PDF-1.5 %���� These cookies are necessary for the TranslatorsCafe.com website to function and cannot be turned off in our system. M Asthenosphere H igh-pressure X-ray diffraction for hydrous magma has been conducted to reveal how the structures of hydrous magma (MgO-SiO 2 join) change with pressure corresponding to the Earth’s asthenosphere. oceanic crust. T As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. You can set your browser to block these cookies. However, we do not guarantee that our converters and calculators are free of errors. Pressure (p), mass (m), and the acceleration due to gravity (g), are related by P = F/A = (m*g)/A, where A is surface area. Add your answer and earn points. M ⋅ Thus, a diver 10.3 m underwater experiences a pressure of about 2 atmospheres (1 atm of air plus 1 atm of water). The Effect of Water on Ionic Conductivity in Olivine Hongzhan Fei 1, Dmitry Druzhbin , and Tomoo Katsura 1Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany Abstract High‐temperature ionic conductivity in olivine single crystals has been measured in the [100], [010], and [001] crystallographic orientations as a function of pressure from 2 to 10 GPa, temperature from It was first named in 1914 by the British geologist Joseph Barrell, who divided Earth's overall structure into three major sections: the lithosphere, or outer layer of rock-like material; the asthenosphere; and the centrosphere, or central part of the planet. 1 pascal is equal to 9.8692316931427E-6 atmosphere, or 1.0E-9 GPa. Conversely, 10.3 m is the maximum height to which water can be raised using suction under standard atmospheric conditions. Asthenosphere has a pressure of about 18 GPa; The mantle is a layer between the outer core and the crust, it has a pressure of about 149 GPa. The area where the force is applied is small, so the pressure is high enough to cut through the object. (3487 Pa or 34.9 millibars). Low pressures such as natural gas lines are sometimes specified in inches of water, typically written as w.c. (water column) gauge or w.g. One atmosphere (101.325 kPa or 14.7 psi) is also the pressure caused by the weight of a column of fresh water of approximately 10.3 m (33.8 ft). L'asthénosphère (du grec astheneia, « faiblesse », et sphère) est la partie la plus visqueuse du manteau terrestre. outer core inner core lithosphere oceanic crust asthenosphere 1 See answer shaedonmount333 is waiting for your help. Use this page to learn how to convert between atmospheres and gigapascals. One can calculate the atmospheric pressure at a given altitude. Which layers most likely have a pressure, represented in units of GPa, ranging from 75 GPa to 110 GPa? [1] The atm unit is roughly equivalent to the mean sea-level atmospheric pressure on Earth, that is, the Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 1 atm. In aviation, weather reports (METAR), QNH is transmitted around the world in millibars or hectopascals (1 hectopascal = 1 millibar), except in the United States, Canada, and Colombia where it is reported in inches of mercury (to two decimal places). [9], The Dead Sea, the lowest place on Earth at 430 metres (1,410 ft) below sea level, has a correspondingly high typical atmospheric pressure of 1065 hPa. The highest adjusted-to-sea level barometric pressure ever recorded on Earth (above 750 meters) was 1084.8 hPa (32.03 inHg) measured in Tosontsengel, Mongolia on 19 December 2001. The SI derived unit for pressure is the pascal. A column of air with a cross-sectional area of 1 in2 would have a weight of about 14.7 lbf, resulting in a pressure of 14.7 lbf/in2. atmosphere to centimeter of mercury. The answer is 9869.2316931427. join) change with pressure corresponding to the Earth’s asthenosphere. atmosphere or Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. R At the bottom of the mantle the pressure is about 140GPa and gradually lightens towards the top and is about 3 GPa at the very edge of the mantle. In 1774, Maskelyne was confirming Newton's theory of gravitation at and on Schiehallion mountain in Scotland, and he needed to accurately measure elevations on the mountain's sides. The LAB is an isobar at P ≈ 3 GPa (~ 90 km) for t > ~ 70 Ma, above which is the conductive lithosphere and below which is the convective asthenosphere, explaining why the lithosphere cannot grow any thicker when t > ~ 70 Ma and making sub-LAB convection possible. The SI derived unit for pressure is the pascal. (

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